Friday, April 17

Architecture profession

sedikit bahan ilmiah yang berguna utk student architecture..*saje letak dlm ni supaya mie sendiri senang nak rujuk..haha,da mcm note book mimie je, blog mie nih..haha plus nak bagi adik baca..dia berminat gak..huhu*

*pada sesape yang rase panjang sangat ngan mengantuk nak baca..xyah baca..*



The Architecture Profession: A Brief Introduction

1.0 What is an Architect?

Architecture is one of the oldest profession in the world. An architect is a designer of buildings. They don't actually construct them, because they have builders working for them. Architects are the leader in the construction industry, usually second only to the client or developer. They don't just design buildings, architects also take into consideration the clients needs and requirements and protects their rights.



2.0 Governing Bodies
The architecture profession in Malaysia is protected by law. The regulating and governing body of the architecture profession in Malaysia is known as Lembaga Akitek Negara (LAM). They govern the entire profession starting from the definition of an architect under the Malaysian Constitution, licensing, practice, acts and enactments as well as education.

The other body that concerns the well being of architects themselves is Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia. It functions as an association that takes care of its members, organize functions and manages the professional development of an architect from the lowest to highest qualification.



3.0. Practicing Architecture

Just like Bar exams for lawyers, architects also require certain level of qualification that is a standard worldwide. The qualifications are known as PAM Part 1, 2 and 3. The equivalent of this is RIBA (Royal Institute of British Architects), AIA (American Institute of Architects) and RAIA (Royal Australian Institute of Architects).

user posted image

The diagram above shows the career path of an architect. After graduating with Part 2, a person is known as an architect, and will be able to practice according to the job specification of an architect. This should be the minimum target of anyone pursuing this profession. Anything less is a waste of time.

These qualifications can be obtained in two ways:
    i. Obtaining a fully accredited degree (or equivalent) that carries Part 1 or 2 equivalent.
    ii. Sitting for individual exams after obtaining a non-accredited degree for Part or 2.
Part 3 can only be obtained after practicing as an architect for a minimum of 2 years and fulfilling all the project requirements set by LAM. Fulfilling these needs, the architect will then submit themselves to a series of interviews and exams to determine that they are capable and absolutely qualified. These exams are conducted by PAM.

So how do one study to become an architect?



4.0. Common Paths to Studying Architecture

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BLUE - degrees that lead to LAM accredited Part 2 architecture.
GREEN - degrees that lead to LAM accredited Part 1 architecture.
YELLOW - degrees that in currently unaccredited by LAM, but is of Part 1 or 2 equivalent.
ORANGE - diplomas that are sub-Part 1.
GREY - pre-university certificates.
RED - LAM qualifications exams to be taken independently.


List of Abbreviations:


UTM - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
USM - Universiti Sains Malaysia
UM - Universiti Malaya
UiTM - Universiti Teknologi MARA
UIAM/IIUM - Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia / International Islamic University Malaysia
UKM - Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
UPM - Universiti Putra Malaysia

LUCT - LimKokWing University of Creative Technology
UCSI - University College Sedaya International
Taylor's - Taylor's University College Malaysia
Alfa - Alfa International College (formerly known as Alif)
IUCTT - International University College of Technology Twintech
ITP YPJ - Institut Teknologi Perindustrian, Yayasan Pelajaran Johor
Poli KPM - Politeknik Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
UCI - Unity College International


The diagram above illustrates, as simple as possible, the route to become an architect after SPM. There are several ways to do so, and it is totally up to a person. The choices are quite open, where students can generally study fulltime in Malaysia, partly in Malaysia+overseas, or fully overseas.

Each of the choices above have its own advantage and disadvantages. This I will elaborate further in the future. Most important factors are time and money. So the next question would be: where can you study architecture?



4.1. Schools, Accreditation and Level of Qualification

LAM in collaboration with Lembaga Akreditasi Negara (LAN) frequently assesses schools (once every 5 years) in order to maintain the standard of education for architecture. New schools will need to be assessed fully before given accreditation. As I've mentioned before, to obtain Part 1 and 2 qualifications, the diploma or degree must be accredited by LAM and LAN.


Locally, schools that have obtained PAM Part 1 are:

UTM, UiTM, UM, USM, UIAM and UPM

Schools that have obtained PAM Part 2 are:

UTM, UiTM, UM, USM, UIAM and UPM

Schools that are recognized to conduct architecture education but not yet accredited by LAM are:

UKM, University College Sedaya International (UCSI), Limkokwing, Taylor's University College, Alfa College (formerly Aliff College), IUCTT (L&G Twintech) and Kuala Lumpur Infrastructure University College (KLIUC)


Schools not currently accredited usually have a partner or twinning programmes with other accredited universities. LUCT for example is partnering with Curtin University, which by the time a student graduates from Curtin, they will acquire a PAM part 2 equivalent qualification.

Important note: In architecture education, there are two bodies awarding recognition/accreditation: LAN/MQA and LAM. LAN/MQA is responsible in ensuring that the course offered complies to the standard of awarding an academic certificate (diploma, degree etc). Not having a LAN/MQA recognition simply means the school does not have high enough standard to award a single degree, let alone an architectural degree. LAM on the other hand monitors the quality of architecture education, ensuring that a degree produces qualified architect for practice. Not having LAM accreditation means the degree still has value, but not enough to become a legally licensed architects. However graduates still have the option to take LAM exams independently.


4.2. Accredited International Schools


Studying overseas is one of the recommended option to study architecture. It is advised that an architect to travel as much as they can, to understand other buildings, arts and cultures. I personally would recommend studying in Europe, as you can really benefit a lot from travel. Listed below are accredited schools by LAN & LAM, which upon graduation, you will be automatically awarded PAM part 2, an additional qualification apart from the given RIBA equivalent.

(Meaning if you graduated from these schools, you can work both overseas and in Malaysia.)


AUSTRALIA

Adelaide, Canberra, Deakin, Melbourne, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Newcastle, New South Wales (NSW), New South Wales Institute of Technology, Queensland, Queensland Institute of Technology, Tasmania-Launceston, Sydney, South Australia, Curtin University of Technology and Western Australia.


EIRE DUBLIN

University College Dublin


HONG KONG

University of Hong Kong


NEW ZEALAND

University of Auckland and Victoria University of Wellington


UNITED KINGDOM

Robert Gordon (Aberdeen), Bath, The Queen's University (Belfast), Central England Univ (Birmingham), Brighton, Cambridge, Kent Inst. of Art&Design (Canterbury), Wales (Cardiff), Greenwich (Dartford), Dundee, Heriot-Watt (Edinburgh), Mackintosh (Glasgow), Strathclyde (Glasgow), Huddersfield, Humberside (Hull), Leeds Metropolitan, De Montford (Leicester), Liverpool John Moores, Liverpool, Architecture Association (London), The Bartlett (London), Kingston, North East London Polytechnic, Westminster (London), North London, South Bank (London), Manchester, Manchester Metropolitan, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Nottingham, Oxford Brookes, Plymouth Polytechnic, Portsmouth and Sheffield.



List above are courtesy of Lembaga Akitek Malaysia



4.3. Common Paths after Finishing Part 1


user posted image

The diagram above illustrates common paths that most architecture students with Part 1 took after finishing up their first degrees. Yellow choices indicate academic paths, and blue choices indicate work/practice paths. It is also common that students choose to work for a year or two before continuing for their Part 2. Having work experience tremendously boosts their chances to land a place in a university, not to mention the advantage of experience they have over other students who went straight from Part 1.



5.0. Planning Your Studies

5.1. SPM Subject Relevance

Due to so many questions about what subject(s) to take during SPM that would be considered relevant to architecture, I've tabled out all the SPM subjects (not including vocational subject category) and explained more or less on its relevancy to architecture education.

    Legend

    i. Subject - Subjects that have been categorized according to its similar contribution towards architecture education.
    ii. Category - Keywords of relevant knowledge or skills that is attributed to the subject in architecture education.
    iii. Description - A brief description on what the subject could contribute when studying architecture.
    iv. Relevance - The value of taking that particular subject in relation to learning architecture.
This table is not to be confused with the intake requirement for any university. This list compiles the relevance of the subjects according to the typical architecture curriculum. Meaning, not taking a "Very Relevant" subject does not put you at a disadvantage when applying for architecture compared to those taking it.

The other reason for this table is to demystify the common misconception that students need Math, AddMath, Physics and Arts in architecture, where in actual fact, those requirements are only needed when applying for the course. The purpose of this table is to provide general knowledge so anyone who just finished PMR could decide which subject they want to take for SPM in order to benefit the most during architecture education.

1.4. Financing your studies


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Is it worth to take a loan to study architecture overseas?
This is very subjective. It will depend on whether you would be able to comfortably afford to pay back the loan after you've finished studying. Earning a well paying job would definitely make you feel taking the loan is well worth it. But if eventually you couldn't manage to pay back the loan or having difficulties, you may think it might not be worth the hassle.

Above that, you should consider the benefits and the negative effects of studying overseas, and weigh them against the issues of taking a loan. We're normally talking about almost RM100k for the entire duration, so please be completely thorough in your risk assessments.

Are there any loans or financial support available for me to study architecture courses in IPTSs?
Commonly, the most popular of financing your studies in IPTS is taking a PTPTN loan. You can also find other financiers such as banks or NGOs. Always look out for such offers in the newspapers.

Are there any architectural firms that give out scholarships or loans?
I can't give a definite answer to this, but as far as I know, there isn't.

What are my chances of getting sponsored to study architecture overseas by JPA?
Architecture is grouped under social sciences. According to JPA, the allocation for social science group is 100 students per year. It means architecture students will have to compete with other social science courses for those. I don't know the exact details, but this can be as low as 5-10 students only, out of hundreds that applied.

2.0. Architecture Education


2.1. Studying architecture


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I heard architecture is one of the hardest courses around. What are the chances of failing, and what are the reasons of students failing the course?
Architecture is not as hard as people think. It can be quite safe to say that STPM is even harder to study than the entire architecture course. What makes it perceived as one of the hardest is it relies a lot on your creativity to produce something that is not there, as compared to churning out knowledge that you've memorized before an exam.

The pressure of coming up with an original design sometimes is too much to take, especially when limited time and constant pressures of being a student are added into the equation. Some students fought the pressure, some buckled, and some gave up. It's quite normal for students to fail and repeat a subject or two, which all schools try to provide the best environment to support the students. By average, failure rates per semester can be as high as 10%, but it is usually due to pressure, and almost never because of they're too slow to pick up in class.

How much different is it to study architecture in Malaysia as compared to, lets say, in the UK?
Malaysian architecture education very much adopts the British architecture education system. We learn more or less the same skills, knowledge and applications of those. The primary difference would be exposures to different cultural practices as well as environmental factors, learning from world renowned academics and experts, and better access to a wide range of architecture in Europe.

Why does architecture course take so long?
This boils down to how architecture itself is so very different from any other fields or professions. Studying architecture is not as much academic as compared to other fields like medicine or engineering. Architecture education is a life-long process: architects never stop learning. Period.

What a 5 year course does is to imbue the students of architecture with the necessary skills to allow them to accumulate more knowledge when they embark in the professional world. Meaning, the actual learning only takes place when you start your first job as an architect. It is quite hard to comprehend what this means if you've never been in the architectural field. It's not a philosophical statement, but a literal depiction of life in architecture.

So why does it take so long just to prepare to learn architecture? Because that's the shortest duration possible to train and prepare an architect with everything they need (or at least everything essential) for their life-long journey in learning architecture.



2.2. Subjects and topics offered


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What are the topics or subjects covered in the course?
Topics in architecture are quite wide ranging and may differ from school to school, depending on their focus or niche area(s). But generally, subjects can be divided into several groups:
i. Design
This will train you to create or generate a spark, develop it into a mature idea and finalize it into a real end product. You will also be trained in arts and communication.
ii. Culture and Humanities
In this group, you will learn about history, theory and philosophy in architecture since the very beginning to the latest designs.
iii. Technology
All the building technicalities, structures, services and even user-oriented technologies like environmental technologies are taught in this group of subjects.
iv. Management
This is the other side of architecture, focusing on practice: laws and regulations, economics and practice managements.

The emphasis of these subject groups differ from school to school. Some schools may divide some of the groups into smaller groupings to focus more on the subjects.

If I take architecture as a major, can I take a minor in other fields, areas or subjects?
At the moment, Malaysian architectural schools have not adopted the major-minor system. There are plans for the future, but none in the works yet.

Will I get the chance to study timber architecture?
In Malaysian schools, timber architecture is a key element relating to the vernacular/traditional construction method. Exploring timber architecture then becomes an integral part in finding and establishing the Malaysian architectural heritage. So yes, you will get to study timber architecture in any Malaysian schools.

I was informed that architecture is primarily project based. What are the emphases on exams?
The actual emphasis will differ from schools to schools, but it is generally about 50% will be project and assignment based. Schools that emphasizes on design will have more weightage on project assessments.



2.3. Skills and abilities


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How important are technical drawing skills?
Technical drawing skills are important as it is part of the core communicative ability that an architect possesses. Without this ability, the architect will experience a disadvantage when trying to relay his thoughts as well as receiving information from others. It is as important as reading skills to a writer or music skills to a musician.

Architecture demands strong command in mathematics and physics. Is this true?
Not entirely. Of course, having good grasp in mathematics and physics will assist your learning, but you will be taught the necessary mathematics and physics related to architecture again, usually from scratch.

Can I study architecture without having any knowledge or skills in arts?
Yes, you can. During your early years, you will be taught enough drawing skills to get you through the entire study. All you need is enough interest and motivation to develop it, and eventually enjoy it.

Can I do architecture if I hate/bad at drawing?
As explained earlier, you can still do architecture even if you're not good in drawing. This assumes that you'll still be able to pick the skill up within the 5 years. However, if you hate drawing, I'm afraid architecture might not be for you.

How important is English in Malaysian architectural courses?
Very important. I believe it is safe to say that virtually all architectural schools in Malaysia conduct architecture education in English. Architecture is one of the courses that prefer to be conducted in English because of the vast amount of resources readily available in English. Adding to that, architecture is a field that centers in communication, and given the vast vocabulary to use, architects can harness the language to communicate the best about their designs.



2.4. Computing in architecture education


Do I need a computer in my studies?
Yes, you do. Computers have become essential in architecture education that many schools have adopted an integrated approach using computers in learning design.

How important is computer skills in architecture?
Computer skills are important indeed. Computers are still another tool and would never make you a better designer without proper skills, so students are required to master computer skills as any other students would master a pen or pencil to write.

How heavily will I rely on computers in my architectural studies?
You will rely on them quite often that schools would recommend students to own their own computers. Most schools will be able to provide computing facilities for the students, but these are shared with other students in the entire school, so it might not be efficient enough.

What software are used in architecture?
There are four categories of software used in architecture education:
i. Designing
Design softwares assist the designers at the early design formulation stage. This is a stage traditionally done using pencils and papers, where an architect would doodle or sketch until they come up with a possible design. Software used: Google Sketchup.
ii. Drawing production
This category is solely for production of design drawings, usually finalized. This includes 3D final rendering, 2D working drawings and such. Software used: AutoCAD, 3DSmax, Vectorworx, Microstation, Lightwave, Maya etc.
iii. Graphics and desktop publishing
This is the final drawing compositing software, used to combine all the designs and ideas into one presentation format. Software used: Flash, Photoshop, CorelDraw, Illustrator, PageMaker etc.
iv. Word processing
This is primarily used for report writing, assignments and so on. Software used: MS Word, WordPerfect etc.



2.5. References on architecture education

Are there books or websites that I can read to familiarize myself before starting the course?
Due to the nature of the web, it is better to recommend search strings in order to find what you want. Try focusing on "architecture education", "degree in architecture", "how to become an architect" and so on.

There are also books to start familiarizing about architecture, but most generally assumes the reader has some basic knowledge of architecture. It is better for a non-initiated to expose themselves to magazines instead as they're more up-to-date and more stylized to keep the readers interested. Once you've got into architecture, then only perhaps we might get into something with more substance than pop-culture.

Is there a list of textbooks used in architectural schools in Malaysia?
No, there isn't. Architecture does not use text books, as information is updated quite frequently. A known fact in 2007 might not be relevant or proved false as early as January 2008. So having a collection of text books is counter-productive to education.

Moreover, the topics to cover in architecture are infinitely wide and deep at the same time. You could buy all the books in the world and still not cover half of it. Hence schools adopt a more integrated approach where students are taught how to construct new knowledge regardless of whatever source they've used.

Are there any websites that cover topics in architecture?
Like textbooks, there's no point in showing websites that cover topics in architecture. What you need is internet search skills so that you could retrieve any sort of information in the fastest, most efficient way possible.



2.6. University life in Malaysia


Since all IPTAs are campus based, can I use my own vehicle?
Most IPTAs have a ruling where first year students aren't allowed to use private vehicles except in special cases (physically challenged etc). This is to reduce the number of private vehicles used in campus during term time. After first year, students can use their own vehicle freely.

Do IPTAs/IPTSs offer student accommodation? Is it compulsory to stay there?
IPTAs will offer accommodations to first year students primarily, and it is compulsory for the first years to stay there. Moreover, the first year fees have already included accommodations, so why not just use it, yes?

On the other hand, some IPTAs have enough accommodation to house the entire student population on campus such as UTM Skudai, and there is no need to worry about where you might stay in the future. Of course, not all student accommodation complies with your average standard of living, so students will usually opt to rent a private house and stay off campus.

What are the facilities considered common for an architecture school?
The most dominant facility in any architecture school is the design studio. To the non-initiated, the design studio is where the artist or architect works in, technically a cross between a laboratory and a workshop. It is a laboratory because it is where designers experiment, yet it is not really a lab because it lacks the research rigor. It is a workshop because learning is hands on, but it is not really a workshop because the end product is theoretical.

An architecture school would also have a workshop, mainly timber; a computer lab that includes printing and plotting facilities; research labs that coincides with the school's niche area(s); exhibition halls; crit or review rooms; lecture theatres; tutorial rooms and a resource centre (in some schools it is combined with the library).

I heard architecture students sleeps less and stays up all night. How true is this and why?
This is quite true actually, and it is not always because of poor time management. Night time is the only time of the day that offers the longest stretch of uninterrupted concentration. No classes, no meetings, no appointments and usually less cravings for food. And being in the tropics, working at night is much more comfortable than during the day. Because of these, architecture students tend to extend their period of concentration into the wee hours, sometimes neglecting their need for sleep and good rest.

Do I need to get my own drafting set (table included)?
In most schools, drafting table is provided, but students would still have to buy their own drafting stationeries. It boils down to how you study and work. If you prefer to work in the studio, then you don't have to buy your own table. If you're the kind of person who works alone in your room, then it might be a good idea to have your own personal drafting table and set. Then again, most of designers today have moved to digital drafting, so it might be a good idea to get a PC or laptop instead.

Will I need to own a digital camera in my studies?
Not necessarily, but having one does make some part of your life easier. You might even discover a hidden talent of capturing beautiful sceneries, which most often architects tend to develop.

3.2. About the profession and industry

What does the title AR stands for? How do I obtain one?
The title AR is actually an abbreviation for the title "Architect", and pronounced exactly as "architect" and not "ahrr" or "ay arr". It becomes a prefix to an architect's name just as doctors use DR or engineers use IR. For example, Ar. Johan would be pronounced as Architect Johan. Also worth to mention is that the title AR is awarded solely to Malaysian architects, and only used in Malaysia.

Obtaining the title is fairly simple. It is a title that is awarded to all Part 3 architects in Malaysia only. To obtain it, simply sit and pass the Part 3 exam.

How do I obtain a Part 3?
You can start preparing for your Part 3 by registering yourself with LAM as soon as you get your Part 2. You will be required to practice and fill a log book for at least 2 years until you've fulfilled all the requirements needed by the log book. Having completed that, you can apply to sit for the Part 3 exam conducted by LAM. Having passed this exam you will be awarded with a Part 3 qualification.

Does obtaining a Masters carry any weight in architecture?
It does give you the edge of being specialized in a focus area rather than a general architect. Masters is also a way of establishing yourself as an expert or master in a particular area. For example, a masters in building conservation makes you an expert in conserving heritage buildings, adapting heritage architecture as well as planning for expansion or upgrade for the heritage buildings. A masters in environmental designs gives you the edge on designing tropical designs, especially in response to local climates.

A masters should not be seen as a ticket to a better pay, but it does give you the advantage of being specialized, something that is sought after in practice. Academically, it also establishes you as being competent at doing research, which may prove useful in future endeavors.

Are there any variations to architecture? What are landscape, interior and naval architectures?
Architecture is actually a specific degree, although it has its own specializations after that. It is grouped under the Built Environment, which includes town and regional planning, urban design, landscape architecture, interior architecture/design, quantity surveying and civil engineering.

Naval architecture is a slight offset from architecture itself, focusing on marine architecture at the sea or waterfronts.

Landscape architecture is the soft side of architecture, concerning environmental design, layout, floral designs and so on. Although some may refer to them as glorified gardeners, they're actually more of a botanic designer.

Interior architecture concerns on the interior design of the building. This is not something an architect couldn't do, but the load of designing a building can be so complex that interior designers have become a profession on its own.

Architecture is a male dominated profession. Is this true?
This issue is quite subjective depending on how you look at it. Architecture have been a male dominated profession until around the 1920s, and this is the result of some of the prominent schools in the UK started taking female architecture students for the first time.

However, it is not to say that architecture still belongs to male architects. As a matter of fact, there have been a lot of prominent female architects in the profession today. Women have shown resilience and strength working in extreme conditions in the office, such as approaching deadlines, peer pressure, site labour and so on.

Do architects really need to travel a lot?
Yes, they do. Exposure is one of the ways architects learn. Experiencing different cultures and environment allows the architect to gain different perspectives. This will translate into new ideas of creativity and innovation.

How does Malaysian economy affect the architectural industry?
The architectural industry in Malaysia depends very much on the economy as much as in any other countries. Architecture is an investment, and a large amount at that. Even a single house may cost up to RM500k. It means that if people are weary of spending, large expenditures like buildings will be cut off first. Hence if there's any economic sways, architecture is the first industry to feel the heat.

However, in Malaysia about half of the architectural projects are from the government. Since government expenditures are not affected as much as the private sector, the projects will still keep flowing in. Schools, hospitals, government buildings - all still need to be built.

I was informed by the newspapers that Malaysia encourages its architects to find job overseas. Does this mean that there isn't much job left in Malaysia?
Not really. Exposures to different working environment, especially in a totally different country opens up new prospects, exposure to different things and gaining experience. Sometimes being so used to a certain culture makes us blind to its significance. For example, we take for granted about being able to dine in an outside environment in the wee hours in the morning. In the UK, everything closes at 6pm, and dining ends at 10 or 11pm. There's no good food at 3am other than several take-aways. Appreciating our uniqueness requires exposure to others. This is just one of the benefits of practicing abroad.

It has nothing to do with lack of jobs in Malaysia. In fact, Malaysia still needs a lot of architects, because there're only about 1600 Part 3 architects in Malaysia for 27 million populations!

Architecture is harder for women compared to men. Is this true?
This used to be true, and some of its effects have been greatly exaggerated. Women nowadays could do physical tasks as well as or even better than men. They could also handle pressure as men do, and always up to the challenges in architecture. Just remember that architecture is one of the last few professions to be released from the gender dogmas, so you can still find people still bogged down with this narrow mindset.

At what point can I start my own practice?
At any point you prefer actually. Most people prefer to start after they've acquired a Part 3, a sufficient experience, and preferable a wide clientele. But Part 3 is not a necessary requirement. It just means you don't have to pay or hire a Part 3 to endorse projects. Having a Part 3 also carries a certain amount of prestige that a client will look up to.

How do architects get projects when they are not allowed to advertise by the codes of practice?
Architects are bound to the code of practice, and one of it is that they cannot advertise themselves. So they establish themselves by reputation and connection. This is best way to this is to get to know people and socialize even during school years, hence why architects are known as social beasts. It's part and parcel of the profession.

Having scored several competitions would greatly boost your reputation as an architect, especially the high profile ones. Being well connected is also good, but being able to be involved in programmes, seminar, talks, design discussions and so on could further extend your reputation. And finally the most important way - is to design award winning architecture.

Having established yourself, you don't need to find clients. They'll come to you.

10 comments:

V said...

bagus laa ko nih mimi...huaarghhh.. aku suke tgk page ko nih

Ummie said...

gile ah ak bace mende nih....
x paham sgt tp nway..ak bace la gak...
hahaha

mimiemonImagination said...

haha..ak just amek yg penting2 utk ak..hehe..sorry yer kalo xphm..

najwa saifudin said...

pergh. hebat.

mimiemonImagination said...

haha..ni refference je ak amek kat tenet..ne tau pas ni nkea kn.rsea kn.. :P

jessie said...

the site was good enough to get more information about studies is abroad form
other sites which i visited last month and its was worth then other.



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chan said...

im interested to persue my part 2 in an european country.may i know if it is not recognise by PAM or the equivalent qualification, what should i do?thanks

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DEWHURST TOULSON said...

They could also handle pressure as men do, and always up to the challenges in architecture.
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